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dc.contributor.authorGarland, Jon-
dc.identifier.citationInternational Review of Victimology, 2012, 18 (1), pp. 25-37en
dc.description.abstractThis article analyses the issues involved with deciding which identity groups are categorised as specific hate crime victim groups and which are not. It assesses whether theories of hate crime based around hierarchical notions of group dominance and subordination are helpful in determining which groups should be included under this hate crime ‘umbrella’. Through a discussion of the victimisation of disabled people, the elderly and the homeless, the article outlines key concepts – relating to community, risk, harm and vulnerability – that are central to comprehending the nature of the abuse that they suffer. It also notes the common misreading of ‘low-level’ targeted harassment as anti-social behaviour, and assesses the impact this has upon the development of a more in-depth understanding of the circumstances of victims. The article also highlights the problems with using collective terms such as ‘communities’ or ‘groups’ in this context, as such entities can be very diverse and indeed often intersect with each other. As an alternative, it is suggested that moving the debate away from collective terminology towards an understanding of the risk of targeted victimisation that individuals face would be helpful when trying to assess the circumstances of disabled people, the elderly and the homeless, who currently are still at the margins of the hate debate.en
dc.publisherSage Publicationsen
dc.rights© 2011, SAGE Publications. Deposited with reference to the publisher’s archiving policy available on the SHERPA/RoMEO website.en
dc.subjectanti-social behaviouren
dc.subjecttargeted harassmenten
dc.titleDifficulties and Dilemmas in Defining Hate Crime Victimisationen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCEen
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE/Department of Criminologyen
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Criminology

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