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dc.contributor.authorTsujimoto, M.-
dc.contributor.authorGuainazzi, M.-
dc.contributor.authorPlucinsky, P. P.-
dc.contributor.authorBeardmore, A. P.-
dc.contributor.authorIshida, M.-
dc.contributor.authorNatalucci, L.-
dc.contributor.authorPosson-Brown, J. L. L.-
dc.contributor.authorRead, A. M.-
dc.contributor.authorSaxton, R. D.-
dc.contributor.authorShaposhnikov, N. V.-
dc.identifier.citationAstronomy & Astrophysics, 2011, 525-
dc.description.abstractContext. For many years, X-ray astronomy missions have used the Crab nebula as a celestial calibration source for the X-ray flux and spectral shape. However, the object is often too bright for current and future missions equipped with instruments with improved sensitivity. Aims. We use G21.5–0.9, a pulsar-wind nebula with a time-constant power-law spectrum and a flux of a few milli-Crab in the X-ray band, as a viable, fainter substitute to the Crab. Using this source, we conduct a cross-calibration study of the instruments onboard currently active observatories: Chandra ACIS, Suzaku XIS, Swift XRT, and XMM-Newton EPIC (MOS and pn) for the soft-band, and INTEGRAL IBIS-ISGRI, RXTE PCA, and Suzaku HXD-PIN for the hard band. Methods. We extract spectra from all instruments and fit under the same astrophysical assumptions. We compare the spectral parameters of the G21.5–0.9 model: power-law photon index, H-equivalent column density of the interstellar photoelectric absorption, and flux in the soft (2–8 keV) or hard (15–50 keV) energy band. Results. We identify systematic differences in the best-fit parameter values unattributable to statistical scatter of the data alone. We interpret these differences as due to residual cross-calibration problems. The differences can be as large as 20% and 9% for the soft-band flux and power-law index, respectively, and 46% for the hard-band flux. The results are plotted and tabulated as a useful reference for future calibration and scientific studies using multiple missions.-
dc.publisherEDP Sciences for European Southern Observatory (ESO)-
dc.rightsCopyright © 2010 ESO. Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, © ESO.-
dc.sourceWeb of Science (Lite)-
dc.subjectinstrumentation: detectors-
dc.subjectX-rays: individuals: G21.5-0.9-
dc.titleCross-calibration of the X-ray instruments onboard the Chandra, INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using G21.5-0.9-
dc.typeJournal Article-
dc.description.versionPublisher Version-
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

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