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|Title:||Lactase haplotype frequencies in Caucasians: association with the lactase persistence/non-persistence polymorphism.|
|Citation:||ANN HUM GENET, 1998, 62 (Pt 3), pp. 215-223|
|Abstract:||A genetic polymorphism is responsible for determining that some humans express lactase at high levels throughout their lives and are thus lactose tolerant, while others lose lactase expression during childhood and are lactose intolerant. We have previously shown that this polymorphism is controlled by an element or elements which act in cis to the lactase gene. We have also reported that 7 polymorphisms in the lactase gene are highly associated and lead to only 3 common haplotypes (A, B and C) in individuals of European extraction. Here we report the frequencies of these polymorphisms in Caucasians from north and south Europe and also from the Indian sub-continent, and show that the alleles differ in frequency, the B and C haplotypes being much more common in southern Europe and India. Allelic association studies with lactase persistence and non-persistence phenotypes show suggestive evidence of association of lactase persistence with certain alleles. This association was rather more clear in the analysis of small families, where haplotypes could be determined. Furthermore haplotype and RNA transcript analysis of 11 unrelated lactase persistent individuals shows that the persistence (highly expressed) allele is almost always on the A haplotype background. Non-persistence is found on a variety of haplotypes including A. Thus it appears that lactase persistence arose more recently than the DNA marker polymorphisms used here to define the main Caucasian haplotypes, possibly as a single mutation on the A haplotype background. The high frequency of the A haplotype in northern Europeans is consistent with the high frequency of lactase persistence.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Genetics|
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