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|Title:||Ca2+ regulation in the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger features a dual electrostatic switch mechanism.|
|Citation:||PROC NATL ACAD SCI U S A, 2009, 106 (34), pp. 14333-14338|
|Abstract:||Regulation of ion-transport in the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) occurs via its cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-binding domains, CBD1 and CBD2. Here, we present a mechanism for NCX activation and inactivation based on data obtained using NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We initially determined the structure of the Ca(2+)-free form of CBD2-AD and the structure of CBD2-BD that represent the two major splice variant classes in NCX1. Although the apo-form of CBD2-AD displays partially disordered Ca(2+)-binding sites, those of CBD2-BD are entirely unstructured even in an excess of Ca(2+). Striking differences in the electrostatic potential between the Ca(2+)-bound and -free forms strongly suggest that Ca(2+)-binding sites in CBD1 and CBD2 form electrostatic switches analogous to C(2)-domains. SAXS analysis of a construct containing CBD1 and CBD2 reveals a conformational change mediated by Ca(2+)-binding to CBD1. We propose that the electrostatic switch in CBD1 and the associated conformational change are necessary for exchanger activation. The response of the CBD1 switch to intracellular Ca(2+) is influenced by the closely located cassette exons. We further propose that Ca(2+)-binding to CBD2 induces a second electrostatic switch, required to alleviate Na(+)-dependent inactivation of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. In contrast to CBD1, the electrostatic switch in CBD2 is isoform- and splice variant-specific and allows for tailored exchange activities.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Biochemistry|
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