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Title: Growth differentiation factor-15 predicts mortality and morbidity after cardiac resynchronization therapy
Authors: Foley, P. W. X.
Leyva, F.
Stegemann, B.
Ng, Kelvin
Ng, Leong L.
Ramachandran, S.
Proudler, A.
Frenneaux, M. P.
First Published: 7-Aug-2009
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP) for European Society of Cardiology
Citation: European Heart Journal, 2009, 30 (22), pp. 2749-2757
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) predicts mortality and morbidity after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Growth differentiation factor-15, a transforming growth factor-beta-related cytokine which is up-regulated in cardiomyocytes via multiple stress pathways, predicts mortality in patients with heart failure treated pharmacologically. METHODS AND RESULTS: Growth differentiation factor-15 was measured before and 360 days (median) after implantation in 158 patients with heart failure [age 68 +/- 11 years (mean +/- SD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 23.1 +/- 9.8%, New York Class Association (NYHA) class III (n = 117) or IV (n = 41), and QRS 153.9 +/- 28.2 ms] undergoing CRT and followed up for a maximum of 5.4 years for events. In a stepwise Cox proportional hazards model with bootstrapping, adopting log GDF-15, log NT pro-BNP, LVEF, and NYHA class as independent variables, only log GDF-15 [hazard ratio (HR), 3.76; P = 0.0049] and log NT pro-BNP (HR, 2.12; P = 0.0171) remained in the final model. In the latter, the bias-corrected slope was 0.85, the optimism (O) was -0.06, and the c-statistic was 0.74, indicating excellent internal validity. In univariate analyses, log GDF-15 [HR, 5.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.31-11.9; likelihood ratio (LR) chi(2) = 14.6; P < 0.0001], NT pro-BNP (HR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.55-5.26; LR chi(2) = 10.4; P = 0.0004), and the combination of both biomarkers (HR, 7.03; 95% CI, 2.91-17.5; LR chi(2) = 19.1; P < 0.0001) emerged as significant predictors. The biomarker combination was associated with the highest LR chi(2) for all endpoints. CONCLUSION: Pre-implant GDF-15 is a strong predictor of mortality and morbidity after CRT, independent of NT pro-BNP. The predictive value of these analytes is enhanced by combined measurement.
DOI Link: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp300
ISSN: 0195-668X
eISSN: 1522-9645
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. & The Author 2009. For permissions please email: The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal, Learned Society and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences

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