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|Title:||Nociceptin/orphanin FQ in inflammation and sepsis.|
|Citation:||BR J ANAESTH, 2011, 106 (1), pp. 6-12|
|Abstract:||Nociceptin/orphanin FQ, N/OFQ, and its receptor NOP represent a non-opioid branch of the opioid superfamily that were first studied for their effects on pain responses. Both N/OFQ and NOP are involved in a wide range of 'non-pain' responses including immunomodulation and cardiovascular control. There is now growing interest in this system in inflammation and sepsis, which is the focus of this review article. The N/OFQ-NOP system is present in immune cells and N/OFQ modifies immunocyte function. On the basis of various in vitro and in vivo studies, N/OFQ increases the inflammatory response in healthy anaesthetized animals and in those with a septic or inflammatory process. It affects tissue perfusion, increases capillary leakage and inflammatory markers, and leads to immune cell chemotaxis. Moreover, NOP activation produces bradycardia and hypotension. Systemic N/OFQ administration also increased mortality in an animal model of sepsis, and there is limited evidence for increased plasma N/OFQ concentrations in patients with sepsis who died compared with those who survived. There is a need for further observational and mechanistic studies in patients with established inflammatory processes or sepsis. These studies may facilitate the design of appropriate clinical studies to evaluate NOP ligands as modifiers of the inflammatory response.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences|
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