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|Title:||TGF-beta potentiates airway smooth muscle responsiveness to bradykinin.|
|Citation:||AM J PHYSIOL LUNG CELL MOL PHYSIOL, 2005, 289 (4), pp. L511-L520|
|Abstract:||The molecular mechanisms by which bradykinin induces excessive airway obstruction in asthmatics remain unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been involved in regulating airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma, although it is unknown whether TGF-beta can modulate bradykinin-associated bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To test whether TGF-beta directly modulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) responsiveness to bradykinin, isolated murine tracheal rings were used to assess whether TGF-beta alters ASM contractile responsiveness to bradykinin. Interestingly, we found TGF-beta-treated murine rings (12.5 ng/ml, 18 h) exhibited increased expression of bradykinin 2 (B(2)) receptors and became hyperreactive to bradykinin, as shown by increases in maximal contractile responses and receptor distribution. We investigated the effect of TGF-beta on bradykinin-evoked calcium signals since calcium is a key molecule regulating ASM excitation-contraction coupling. We reported that TGF-beta, in a dose- (0.5-10 ng/ml) and time- (2-24 h) dependent manner, increased mRNA and protein expression of the B(2) receptor in cultured human ASM cells. Maximal B(2) receptor protein expression that colocalized with CD44, a marker of membrane cell surface, occurred after 18 h of TGF-beta treatment and was further confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. TGF-beta (2.5 ng/ml, 18 h) also increased bradykinin-induced intracellular calcium mobilization in fura-2-loaded ASM cells. TGF-beta-mediated enhancement of calcium mobilization was not attenuated with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. These data demonstrate for the first time that TGF-beta may play a role in mediating airway hyperresponsiveness to bradykinin seen in asthmatics by enhancing ASM contractile responsiveness to bradykinin, possibly as a result of increased B(2) receptor expression and signaling.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation|
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