Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2381/28990
Title: Clostridium difficile phages : Still difficult?
Authors: Hargreaves, Katherine R.
Clokie, Martha R. J.
First Published: 27-Apr-2014
Publisher: Frontiers
Citation: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2014, 5 : 184
Abstract: Phages that infect Clostridium difficile were first isolated for typing purposes in the 1980s, but their use was short lived. However, the rise of C. difficile epidemics over the last decade has triggered a resurgence of interest in using phages to combat this pathogen. Phage therapy is an attractive treatment option for C. difficile infection, however, developing suitable phages is challenging. In this review we summarize the difficulties faced by researchers in this field, and we discuss the solutions and strategies used for the development of C. difficile phages for use as novel therapeutics. Epidemiological data has highlighted the diversity and distribution of C. difficile, and shown that novel strains continue to emerge in clinical settings. In parallel with epidemiological studies, advances in molecular biology have bolstered our understanding of C. difficile biology, and our knowledge of phage–host interactions in other bacterial species. These three fields of biology have therefore paved the way for future work on C. difficile phages to progress and develop. Benefits of using C. difficile phages as therapeutic agents include the fact that they have highly specific interactions with their bacterial hosts. Studies also show that they can reduce bacterial numbers in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Genetic analysis has revealed the genomic diversity among these phages and provided an insight into their taxonomy and evolution. No strictly virulent C. difficile phages have been reported and this contributes to the difficulties with their therapeutic exploitation. Although treatment approaches using the phage-encoded endolysin protein have been explored, the benefits of using “whole-phages” are such that they remain a major research focus. Whilst we don’t envisage working with C. difficile phages will be problem-free, sufficient study should inform future strategies to facilitate their development to combat this problematic pathogen.
DOI Link: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00184
ISSN: 1664-302X
Links: http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00184/abstract
http://hdl.handle.net/2381/28990
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2014 Hargreaves and Clokie. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
fmicb-05-00184.pdfPublished (publisher PDF)2.42 MBUnknownView/Open


Items in LRA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.