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Title: Identification of the remains of King Richard III
Authors: King, Turi E.
Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez
Balaresque, Patricia
Thomas, Mark G.
Balding, David
Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano
Neumann, Rita
Parson, Walther
Knapp, Michael
Walsh, Susan
Tonasso, Laure
Holt, John
Kayser, Manfred
Appleby, Jo
Forster, Peter
Ekserdjian, David
Hofreiter, Michael
Schurer, Kevin
First Published: 2-Dec-2014
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Citation: Nature Communications, 2014, 5 : 5631
Abstract: In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.
DOI Link: 10.1038/ncomms6631
eISSN: 2041-1723
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Genetics

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