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Title: High Impact/ Low Frequency extreme events: Enabling Reflection and Resilience in a Hyper-connected World
Authors: Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S.
Masys, Anthony J.
Shiroshita, H.
Jackson, Peter
First Published: 30-Dec-2014
Presented at: 4th International Conference on Building Resilience, Incorporating the 3rd Annual Conference of the ANDROID Disaster Resilience Network, 8th – 11th September 2014, Salford Quays, United Kingdom
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Procedia Economics and Finance, 2014, 18 (2014), pp. 772-779
Abstract: Helbing (2013:51) poignantly argues that ‘Globalization and technological revolutions are changing our planet’. Along with the benefits and opportunities associated with worldwide collaboration networks comes ‘pathways along which dangerous and damaging events can spread rapidly and globally’. With our hyper-connected world underpinned by hyper or hybrid-risks, the impact of unexpected events such as floods, earthquakes, financial crisis, and cyber-attacks has revealed the fragility and vulnerabilities that lie within the social/technological/economic/political/ecological interdependent systems. In particular, events that affect critical infrastructure such as damage to electric power, telecommunications, transportation, health care systems, financial markets and water-supply systems can have local, regional and global impact. calls these extreme events ‘Black swans’ to describe their inherent quality of surprise. Many of the systemic risks that characterize Natural Hazard triggered Technological disasters (NATECH) often arise from unanticipated consequences of interactions within and between different types of systems. Johnson and Tivnan (2012:65) argue that, ‘…understanding, controlling and predicting extreme behavior [of NATECH] is an important strategic goal to support resilience planning’. In this light, a new paradigm is required to support disaster risk reduction (DRR) embedded in hyper-risks; one that will develop not only anticipatory measures for risk management but also prepare for the unpredictable and the ‘unknown’ by building organisational resilience for hyper-risks in general and NATECH disasters in particular. In this paper we explore the emergency management domain associated with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident to show the hyper-connectivity and hyper-risks that permeated the problem space and thereby show how ‘reflective responses’ underpinned by ‘critical reflective practices’ can be used to support resilience in such a complex disaster.
DOI Link: 10.1016/S2212-5671(14)01001-6
eISSN: 2212-5671
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Institute of Lifelong Learning

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