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Title: Loess and bee-eaters III: Birds and ground in the Punjab and the Indus region
Authors: Smalley, Ian
McLaren, Sue
O'Hara-Dhand, Ken
Bentley, Stephen
First Published: 13-Jan-2015
Publisher: Elevier for International Union for Quaternary Research
Citation: Quaternary International, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.12.056
Abstract: Part 3 of the study of loess ground and bee-eater birds concerns birds and ground in the north-western part of the Indian Sub-continent. Three species of bee-eaters are considered, relative to the Indus region: the Green bee-eater, the Blue-cheeked bee-eater and the European bee-eater. Loess in the Indus region is considered via the deterministic approach to loess deposit formation; the P events occur in the mountains of the western part of High Asia, particles are formed by the action of mountain glaciers. Major T actions involve the five rivers of the region which carry loess material into the Punjab plains. Subsequent T actions deliver loess material to local deposits, which provide nesting grounds for bee-eaters. To some extent the bee-eaters define the loess. The Green bee-eater is small (16e18 cm long) and lives over all of India and Pakistan-nesting ground is available everywhere. The larger bee-eaters (European and Bluecheeked: (25 cm)) are more constrained by ground properties-they require the ideal properties of loess ground (an ideal positioning relative to the Heneberg compromise) for nesting, and thus tend to define loess extent. Soil mechanics requires that more exact stress conditions are achieved when a relatively large nest tunnel is being constructed.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.12.056
ISSN: 1040-6182
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2015, Elsevier. Deposited with reference to the publisher’s archiving policy available on the SHERPA/RoMEO website.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Geography

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