Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2381/32076
Title: Abundant and Diverse Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat Spacers in Clostridium difficile Strains and Prophages Target Multiple Phage Types within This Pathogen
Authors: Hargreaves, Katherine R.
Flores, C. O.
Lawley, T. D.
Clokie, Martha R. J.
First Published: 26-Aug-2014
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Citation: mBio , 2014, 5 (5), e01045-13
Abstract: Clostridium difficile is an important human-pathogenic bacterium causing antibiotic-associated nosocomial infections worldwide. Mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages have helped shape C. difficile genome evolution. In many bacteria, phage infection may be controlled by a form of bacterial immunity called the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system. This uses acquired short nucleotide sequences (spacers) to target homologous sequences (protospacers) in phage genomes. C. difficile carries multiple CRISPR arrays, and in this paper we examine the relationships between the host- and phage-carried elements of the system. We detected multiple matches between spacers and regions in 31 C. difficile phage and prophage genomes. A subset of the spacers was located in prophage-carried CRISPR arrays. The CRISPR spacer profiles generated suggest that related phages would have similar host ranges. Furthermore, we show that C. difficile strains of the same ribotype could either have similar or divergent CRISPR contents. Both synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in the protospacer sequences were identified, as well as differences in the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which could explain how phages escape this system. This paper illustrates how the distribution and diversity of CRISPR spacers in C. difficile, and its prophages, could modulate phage predation for this pathogen and impact upon its evolution and pathogenicity.
DOI Link: 10.1128/mBio.01045-13
ISSN: 2150-7511
eISSN: 2150-7511
Links: http://mbio.asm.org/content/5/5/e01045-13
http://hdl.handle.net/2381/32076
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2014 Hargreaves et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
Description: Supplemental material for this article may be found at http://mbio.asm.org /lookup/suppl/doi:10.1128/mBio.01045-13/-/DCSupplemental
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

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