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Title: Are steady magnetospheric convection events prolonged substorms?
Authors: Walach, M-T.
Milan, Stephen A.
First Published: 12-Mar-2015
Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU), Wiley
Citation: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 120, 1751–1758
Abstract: Magnetospheric modes, including substorms, sawtooth events, and steady magnetospheric convection events, have in the past been described as different responses of the magnetosphere to coupling with the solar wind. Using previously determined event lists for sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection events, and substorms, we produce a statistical study of these event types to examine their similarities and behavior in terms of solar wind parameters, auroral brightness, open magnetospheric flux, and geomagnetic indices. A superposed epoch analysis shows that individual sawteeth show the same signatures as substorms but occur during more extreme cases of solar wind driving as well as geomagnetic activity. We also explore the limitations of current methods of identifying steady magnetospheric convection events and explain why some of those events are flagged inappropriately. We show that 58% of the steady magnetospheric convection events considered, as identified by criteria defined in previous studies are part of a prolonged version of substorms due to continued dayside driving during expansion phase. The remaining 42% are episodes of enhanced magnetospheric convection, occurring after extended periods of dayside driving.
DOI Link: 10.1002/2014JA020631
eISSN: 2169-9402
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Description: The OMNI data used in this study are available on the GSFC/SPDF OMNIWeb platform, which can be found at The original IMAGE data are available through the IMAGE FUV homepage (, and the analyzed IMAGE data set is available from the Cluster Science Archive ( The event lists and code used to generate the plots in this paper are stored on University of Leicester computers and are available on request.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

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