Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: The Development of the Short Defeat and Entrapment Scale (SDES)
Authors: Griffiths, A. W.
Wood, A. M.
Maltby, John
Taylor, P. J.
Panagioti, M.
Tai, S.
First Published: 20-Apr-2015
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Citation: Psychological Assessment Apr 20 , 2015,
Abstract: Previous research has suggested that defeat (conceptualized as a failed social struggle) and entrapment (conceptualized as a perceived inability to escape from aversive situations) form a single construct that reliably predicts psychopathological outcomes in clinical and community settings. However, scales designed to assess defeat and entrapment measure the constructs separately, whereas recent evidence suggests a single scale would be appropriate. Existing scales may also be too lengthy to have clinical utility. The present study developed and evaluated a short scale that measured both defeat and entrapment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that defeat and entrapment were best defined by a single factor and eight items were selected that best represented this construct to form the short scale. The scale had high internal consistency (α = .88 - .94), showed criterion validity with hopelessness (r = .45 - .93) and incremental validity for caregiver burden when controlling for depression and positive symptoms of psychosis when controlling for hopelessness (β = .45 - .60). Additionally, the scale had excellent test-retest reliability using single measures absolute agreement Intra-Class Coefficients across 12 months (ricc = .88 - .92) within four samples; people with posttraumatic stress disorder, people with psychosis, care home employees and people from a community sample. The scale demonstrated known group validity through discrimination between clinical and non-clinical groups of participants. This scale could be implemented within therapeutic settings to help clinicians identify patients experiencing defeat and entrapment and incorporate these factors into their clinical assessment and case formulations for treatment.
DOI Link: 10.1037/pas0000110
ISSN: 1040-3590
eISSN: 1939-134X
Embargo on file until: 1-Jan-10000
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Archived with reference to SHERPA/RoMEO and publisher website. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. Version of record:
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, School of Psychology

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
PAS-2014-13131-final.docxPost-review (final submitted)105.37 kBUnknownView/Open
PAS-2014-13131-final.pdfPost-review (final submitted)476.87 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in LRA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.