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Title: Changes in renal medulla gene expression in a pre-clinical model of post cardiopulmonary bypass acute kidney injury
Authors: Ghorbel, M. T.
Patel, N. N.
Sheikh, M.
Angelini, G. D.
Caputo, M.
Murphy, Gavin J
First Published: 21-Oct-2014
Publisher: BioMed Central
Citation: BMC Genomics, 2014, 15 : 916
Abstract: Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The pathogenesis is poorly understood and the study of AKI in rodent models has not led to improvements in clinical outcomes. We sought to determine the changes in renal medullary gene expression in a novel and clinically relevant porcine model of CPB-induced AKI. Results: Adult pigs (n = 12 per group) were randomised to undergo sham procedure, or 2.5 hours CPB. AKI was determined using biochemical (Cr51 EDTA clearance, CrCl, urinary IL-18 release) and histological measures. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on renal medulla biopsies obtained 24 hours post intervention or from sham group. Microarray results were validated with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blotting. Of the transcripts examined, 66 were identified as differentially expressed in CPB versus Sham pig’s kidney samples, with 19 (29%) upregulated and 47 (71%) down-regulated. Out of the upregulated and downregulated transcripts 4 and 16 respectively were expression sequence tags (EST). The regulated genes clustered into three classes; Immune response, Cell adhesion/extracellular matrix and metabolic process. Upregulated genes included Factor V, SLC16A3 and CKMT2 whereas downregulated genes included GST, CPE, MMP7 and SELL. Conclusion: Post CPB AKI, as defined by clinical criteria, is characterised by molecular changes in renal medulla that are associated with both injury and survival programmes. Our observations highlight the value of large animal models in AKI research and provide insights into the failure of findings in rodent models to translate into clinical progress.
DOI Link: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-916
ISSN: 1471-2164
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2014 Ghorbel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences

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