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|Title:||RHPS4 G-quadruplex ligand induces anti-proliferative effects in brain tumor cells|
Tan, I. L.
Hirst, Robert A.
Ward, J. H.
Smith, S. J.
Stevens, M. F.
Grundy, R. G.
|Publisher:||Public Library of Science|
|Citation:||PLoS One, 2014, 9 (1), e86187|
|Abstract:||BACKGROUND: Telomeric 3' overhangs can fold into a four-stranded DNA structure termed G-quadruplex (G4), a formation which inhibits telomerase. As telomerase activation is crucial for telomere maintenance in most cancer cells, several classes of G4 ligands have been designed to directly disrupt telomeric structure. METHODS: We exposed brain tumor cells to the G4 ligand 3,11-difluoro-6,8,13-trimethyl-8H-quino[4,3,2-kl]acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) and investigated proliferation, cell cycle dynamics, telomere length, telomerase activity and activated c-Myc levels. RESULTS: Although all cell lines tested were sensitive to RHPS4, PFSK-1 central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal cells, DAOY medulloblastoma cells and U87 glioblastoma cells exhibited up to 30-fold increased sensitivity compared to KNS42 glioblastoma, C6 glioma and Res196 ependymoma cells. An increased proportion of S-phase cells were observed in medulloblastoma and high grade glioma cells whilst CNS PNET cells showed an increased proportion of G1-phase cells. RHPS4-induced phenotypes were concomitant with telomerase inhibition, manifested in a telomere length-independent manner and not associated with activated c-Myc levels. However, anti-proliferative effects were also observed in normal neural/endothelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. CONCLUSION: This study warrants in vivo validation of RHPS4 and alternative G4 ligands as potential anti-cancer agents for brain tumors but highlights the consideration of dose-limiting tissue toxicities.|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2014 Lagah et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation|
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