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Title: Structural basis of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition
Authors: Amaral, Marta
Levy, Colin
Heyes, Derren J.
Lafite, Pierre
Outeiro, Tiago F.
Giorgini, Flaviano
Leys, David
Scrutton, Nigel S.
First Published: 10-Apr-2013
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Citation: Nature, 2013, 496 (7445), pp. 382-385
Abstract: Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), an enzyme in the eukaryotic tryptophan catabolic pathway (that is, kynurenine pathway), leads to amelioration of Huntington's-disease-relevant phenotypes in yeast, fruitfly and mouse models, as well as in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. KMO is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenase and is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it converts l-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Perturbations in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites have been linked to the pathogenesis of a spectrum of brain disorders, as well as cancer and several peripheral inflammatory conditions. Despite the importance of KMO as a target for neurodegenerative disease, the molecular basis of KMO inhibition by available lead compounds has remained unknown. Here we report the first crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KMO, in the free form and in complex with the tight-binding inhibitor UPF 648. UPF 648 binds close to the FAD cofactor and perturbs the local active-site structure, preventing productive binding of the substrate l-kynurenine. Functional assays and targeted mutagenesis reveal that the active-site architecture and UPF 648 binding are essentially identical in human KMO, validating the yeast KMO-UPF 648 structure as a template for structure-based drug design. This will inform the search for new KMO inhibitors that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in targeted therapies against neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
DOI Link: 10.1038/nature12039
ISSN: 0028-0836
eISSN: 1476-4687
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2013, the authors, published by Nature Publishing Group. Deposited with reference to the publisher’s archiving policy available on the SHERPA/RoMEO website.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Genetics

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