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|Title:||Fatal Attractors in Parity Games: Building Blocks for Partial Solvers|
Kuo, J. H. P.
|Abstract:||Attractors in parity games are a technical device for solving "alternating" reachability of given node sets. A well known solver of parity games - Zielonka's algorithm - uses such attractor computations recursively. We here propose new forms of attractors that are monotone in that they are aware of specific static patterns of colors encountered in reaching a given node set in alternating fashion. Then we demonstrate how these new forms of attractors can be embedded within greatest fixed-point computations to design solvers of parity games that run in polynomial time but are partial in that they may not decide the winning status of all nodes in the input game. Experimental results show that our partial solvers completely solve benchmarks that were constructed to challenge existing full solvers. Our partial solvers also have encouraging run times in practice. For one partial solver we prove that its run-time is at most cubic in the number of nodes in the parity game, that its output game is independent of the order in which monotone attractors are computed, and that it solves all Buechi games and weak games. We then define and study a transformation that converts partial solvers into more precise partial solvers, and we prove that this transformation is sound under very reasonable conditions on the input partial solvers. Noting that one of our partial solvers meets these conditions, we apply its transformation on 1.6 million randomly generated games and so experimentally validate that the transformation can be very effective in increasing the precision of partial solvers.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Computer Science|
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