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Title: Factor Analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale among a Huntington’s Disease Population
Authors: Dale, Maria
Maltby, John
Martucci, Rossana
Shimozaki, Steve
REGISTRY investigators of the European Huntington’s Disease Network
First Published: 7-Oct-2015
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: Movement Disorders
Abstract: ABSTRACT Background Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington’s Disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. Objectives There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington’s disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Huntington’s disease. Methods Data from the European Huntington’s Disease Network study REGISTRY 3 was used to undertake a factor analysis of the scale among a sample of 492 Huntington’s disease mutation carriers. The sample was randomly divided into two equal subsamples and an exploratory factor analysis conducted on the first subsample suggested a 2-factor interpretation, using 8 of the items. A confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to test six possible models for goodness-of-fit. Results A bifactor model, with all items loading onto a general distress factor, with two group factors, comprising 4 depression and 4 anxiety items, provided the best fit of the data. The salience of loadings on the bifactor model suggested loadings were high on the general factor (accounting for 64% of the variance) and low on the group factors (21% for anxiety and 15% for depression). Conclusions The findings suggest that 8 items from the scale perform well among the sample. Consistent with recent developments in modeling the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a bifactor interpretation for an 8-item version outperformed other extant models. Our findings provide support for an 8-item version of the scale to be used as a measure of general distress within Huntington’s disease populations.
DOI Link: 10.1002/mds.26419
eISSN: 1531-8257
Embargo on file until: 1-Jan-10000
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2015 Movement Disorder Society. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Dale, M., Maltby, J., Martucci, R., Shimozaki, S. and the REGISTRY investigators of the European Huntington's Disease Network (2015), Factor analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among a Huntington's disease population. Mov. Disord.. doi: 10.1002/mds.26419, which has been published in final form at
Description: The file associated with this record is under permanent embargo from publication in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy, available at The full text may be available in the publisher links provided above.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, School of Psychology

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