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|Title:||The Palestine Exploration Fund: 1865-1914.|
|Authors:||Moscrop, John James|
|Presented at:||University of Leicester|
|Abstract:||Founded in 1865, the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was for the first 20 years of its existence both the principal British exploration society in the Holy Land and a surveying organisation which was heavily dependent upon the work of and support of the Royal Engineers. From 1865 to 1886 PEF functioned as an independent organisation dependent for its work and existence upon the intelligence department of the War Office. Employing Royal Engineers, men and officers, the Fund surveyed western and eastern Palestine, Sinai, and completed a geographical survey around the Dead Sea. Its surveyors included Charles Wilson (later Sir Charles Wilson), Charles Warren (later Sir Charles Warren), Claude Conder and H. H. Kitchener (later Lord Kitchener), and its supporters and organisers included many notable men of the day. The survey operation linked closely with the need for a full map of the Holy Land area in order to protect and police the eastern hinterland to the Suez Canal. After 1890 the PEF became an archaeological organisation employing William Flinders Petrie (1891), Frederick Jones Bliss (1891-1900), R. A. Macalister (1900-09) and lastly Duncan Mackenzie (1910-1912). From 1913 to 1914 the PEF reverted to its former role of intelligence gathering for the War Office and employed Leonard Woolley and T. E. Lawrence as archaeologists and as a cover for Royal Engineers under Captain Newcombe who surveyed the Wilderness of Zin area. After 1918 the British Mandate in Palestine rendered such uses of the PEF obsolete. This thesis examines the composition of the PEF, its foundation, the involvement of the military intelligence departments with PEF, its financial basis and its relationship to the British involvement in the Middle East. It does not examine the PEF's role in archaeological history, but concentrates upon its work as a Victorian imperial institution.|
|Rights:||Copyright © the author. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Theses, School of Historical Studies|
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