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Title: An in vitro comparison of embolus differentiation techniques for clinically significant macroemboli : dual-frequency technique versus frequency modulation method
Authors: Banahan, C.
Rogerson, Z.
Rousseau, C.
Ramnarine, K. V.
Evans, D. H.
Chung, Emma Ming Lin
First Published: 11-Sep-2014
Publisher: Elsevier for World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology
Citation: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 2014, 40 (11), pp. 2642-2654
Abstract: The ability to distinguish harmful solid cerebral emboli from gas bubbles intra-operatively has potential to direct interventions to reduce the risk of brain injury. In this in vitro study, two embolus discrimination techniques, dual-frequency (DF) and frequency modulation (FM) methods, are simultaneously compared to assess discrimination of potentially harmful large pieces of carotid plaque debris (0.5-1.55 mm) and thrombus-mimicking material (0.5-2 mm) from gas bubbles (0.01-2.5 mm). Detection of plaque and thrombus-mimic using the DF technique yielded disappointing results, with four out of five particles being misclassified (sensitivity: 18%; specificity: 89%). Although the FM method offered improved sensitivity, a higher number of false positives were observed (sensitivity: 72%; specificity: 50%). Optimum differentiation was achieved using the difference between peak embolus/blood ratio and mean embolus/blood ratio (sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 81%). We conclude that existing DF and FM techniques are unable to confidently distinguish large solid emboli from small gas bubbles (<50 μm).
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.06.003
eISSN: 1879-291X
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences

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