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Title: Speciation, physical and electrolytic properties of eutectic mixtures based on CrCl₃·6H₂O and urea
Authors: Abbott, Andrew P.
Al-Barzinjy, Azeez A.
Abbott, Paul D.
Frisch, Gero
Harris, Robert C.
Hartley, Jennifer
Ryder, Karl S.
First Published: 26-Mar-2014
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Citation: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2014, 16 (19), pp. 9047-9055
Abstract: The electrodeposition of chromium is a technologically vital process, which is principally carried out using aqueous chromic acid. In the current study, it is shown that eutectic mixtures of urea and hydrated chromium(III) chloride provide a liquid which reduces the toxicological issues associated with the current aqueous Cr(VI) electroplating solution. Using EXAFS, mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy, it is shown that chromium is present predominantly as a cationic species. Conductivities are higher than for most comparable ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrodeposition of chromium is electrochemically reversible, with a current efficiency much higher than in aqueous electrolytes. Surface tension and density measurements indicate that hole theory is a valid model to describe transport properties in these liquids. Bulk Cr deposits are not macrocrystalline but they are generally crack-free. The deposits have a hardness of 600 ± 10 Vickers and, as such, are comparable to deposits from aqueous systems.
DOI Link: 10.1039/c4cp00057a
eISSN: 1463-9084
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2014. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Chemistry

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