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Title: Contextual barriers to implementation in primary care: an ethnographic study of a program to improve chronic kidney disease care
Authors: Armstrong, Natalie
Herbert, Georgia
Brewster, Liz
First Published: 13-Jun-2016
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Citation: Family Practice, 2016, doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmw049
Abstract: Background: Context is important in implementation—we know that what works in one setting may not work in the same way elsewhere. Primary care has been described as a unique context both in relation to the care delivered and efforts to carry out research and implementation of new evidence. Objective: To explore some of the distinctive features of the primary care environment that may influence implementation. Methods: We conducted an ethnographic study involving observations, interviews and documentary analysis of the ENABLE-CKD project, which involved general practices implementing a chronic kidney disease care bundle and offering self-management support tools to patients. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Results: Four elements of the primary care environment emerged as important influences on the extent to which implementation was successful. First, the nature of delivering care in this setting meant that prioritizing one condition over others was problematic. Second, the lack of alignment with financial and other incentives affected engagement. Third, the project team lacked mechanisms through which engagement could be mandated. Fourth, working relationships within practices impacted on engagement. Conclusions: Those seeking to implement interventions in primary care need to consider the particular context if they are to secure successful implementation. We suggest that there are particular kinds of interventions, which may be best suited to the primary care context.
eISSN: 1460-2229
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Health Sciences

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