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Title: Phase-targeted X-ray diffraction.
Authors: Hansford, Graeme M.
First Published: 1-Oct-2016
Publisher: International Union of Crystallography, Wiley
Citation: Journal of Applied Crystallography, 2016, 49 (Pt 5), pp. 1561-1571
Abstract: A powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) method to enhance the signal of a specific crystalline phase within a mixture is presented for the first time. Specificity to the targeted phase relies on finding coincidences in the ratios of crystal d spacings and the ratios of elemental characteristic X-ray energies. Such coincidences can be exploited so that the two crystal planes diffract through the same scattering angle at two different X-ray energies. An energy-resolving detector placed at the appropriate scattering angle will detect a significantly enhanced signal at these energies if the target mineral or phase is present in the sample. When implemented using high scattering angles, for example 2θ > 150°, the method is tolerant to sample morphology and distance on the scale of ∼2 mm. The principle of the method is demonstrated experimentally using Pd Lα1 and Pd Lβ1 emission lines to enhance the diffraction signal of quartz. Both a pure quartz powder pellet and an unprepared mudstone rock specimen are used to test and develop the phase-targeted method. The technique is further demonstrated in the sensitive detection of retained austenite in steel samples using a combination of In Lβ1 and Ti Kβ emission lines. For both these examples it is also shown how the use of an attenuating foil, with an absorption edge close to and above the higher-energy characteristic X-ray line, can serve to isolate to some degree the coincidence signals from other fluorescence and diffraction peaks in the detected spectrum. The phase-targeted XRD technique is suitable for implementation using low-cost off-the-shelf components in a handheld or in-line instrument format.
DOI Link: 10.1107/S1600576716011936
ISSN: 0021-8898
eISSN: 1600-5767
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are cited.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

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