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|Title:||Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol|
Chipperfield, M. P.
Harrison, J. J.
von Glasow, R.
Montzka, S. A.
Vollmer, M. K.
Krummel, P. B.
Bernath, P. F.
|Publisher:||American Geophysical Union (AGU), Wiley|
|Citation:||Geophysical Research Letters, 2015, 42 (11), pp. 4573-4580 (8)|
|Abstract:||We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS (ClVSLS y ) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClVSLS y mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClVSLS y increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.|
|Rights:||©2015. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Description:||Model output data presented here are available on request. Surface observation data are given in the supporting information. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL063783/full#grl52978-supinf-0001|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy|
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