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|Title:||Lung deposited surface area in Leicester urban background site/UK: Sources and contribution of new particle formation|
|Authors:||Hama, S. M. L.|
Cordell, R. L.
Kos, G. P. A.
Monks, Paul S.
|Citation:||Atmospheric Environment, 2017, 151, pp. 94-107|
|Abstract:||Lung Deposited Surface Area (LDSA) has been identified as a potential metric for the correlation of a physical aerosol particle properties with health outcomes. Currently, there is little urban LDSA data. As a case study, we investigated measurements of LDSA (alveolar) concentrations in a mid-size European city. LDSA and associated measurements were carried out over 1.5 years at an urban background site in Leicester, UK. Average LDSA concentrations in the cold (November–April) and warm (May–October) seasons of UK were 37 and 23 μm2 cm−3, respectively. LDSA correlates well (R2 = 0.65–0.7, r = 0.77–0.8) with traffic related pollutants, such as equivalent black carbon (eBC) and NOX. We also report for the first time in the UK the correlation between an empirically derived LDSA and eBC. Furthermore, the effect of wind speed and direction on the LDSA was explored. Higher LDSA concentrations are observed at low wind speeds (1–2 m s−1), owing to local traffic emissions. In addition, the diurnal variation of LDSA showed a second peak in the afternoon under warm and relatively clean atmospheric conditions, which can be attributed to photochemical new particle formation (NPF) and growth into the Aitken mode range. These NPF events increased the average background LDSA concentrations from 15.5 to 35.5 μm2 cm−3, although they might not be health-relevant. Overall, the results support the notion that local traffic emissions are a major contributor to observed LDSA concentrations with a clear seasonal pattern with higher values during winter.|
|Embargo on file until:||1-Dec-2017|
|Rights:||Creative Commons “Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives” licence CC BY-NC-ND, further details of which can be found via the following link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ Archived with reference to SHERPA/RoMEO and publisher website.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, College of Science and Engineering|
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|LDSA Paper final rev2.pdf||Post-review (final submitted author manuscript)||8.27 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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