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Title: Innate immune humoral factors, C1q and factor H, with differential pattern recognition properties, alter macrophage response to carbon nanotubes.
Authors: Pondman, K. M.
Pednekar, L.
Paudyal, B.
Tsolaki, A. G.
Kouser, L.
Khan, H. A.
Shamji, M. H.
Ten Haken, B.
Stenbeck, G.
Sim, Robert B.
Kishore, U.
First Published: 11-Jul-2015
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 11 (2015) 2109–2118
Abstract: Interaction between the complement system and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can modify their intended biomedical applications. Pristine and derivatised CNTs can activate complement primarily via the classical pathway which enhances uptake of CNTs and suppresses pro-inflammatory response by immune cells. Here, we report that the interaction of C1q, the classical pathway recognition molecule, with CNTs involves charge pattern and classical pathway activation that is partly inhibited by factor H, a complement regulator. C1q and its globular modules, but not factor H, enhanced uptake of CNTs by macrophages and modulated the pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, soluble complement factors can interact differentially with CNTs and alter the immune response even without complement activation. Coating CNTs with recombinant C1q globular heads offers a novel way of controlling classical pathway activation in nanotherapeutics. Surprisingly, the globular heads also enhance clearance by phagocytes and down-regulate inflammation, suggesting unexpected complexity in receptor interaction. From the Clinical Editor Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) maybe useful in the clinical setting as targeting drug carriers. However, it is also well known that they can interact and activate the complement system, which may have a negative impact on the applicability of CNTs. In this study, the authors functionalized multi-walled CNT (MWNT), and investigated the interaction with the complement pathway. These studies are important so as to gain further understanding of the underlying mechanism in preparation for future use of CNTs in the clinical setting.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.nano.2015.06.009
ISSN: 1549-9634
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Description: Supplementary data to this article can be found online at
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

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