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Title: High-Resolution Imaging of the Optic Nerve and Retina in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
Authors: Pilat, Anastasia
Sibley, Daniel
McLean, Rebecca J.
Proudlock, Frank A.
Gottlob, Irene
First Published: 1-May-2015
Publisher: Elsevier for American Academy of Ophthalmology
Citation: Ophthalmology: Journal of The American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2015, 122 (7), pp. 1330-1339 (10)
Abstract: Purpose To investigate the optic nerve and macular morphology in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Design Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects A total of 16 participants with ONH (10 female and 6 male; mean age, 17.2 years; 6 bilateral involvement) and 32 gender-, age-, ethnicity-, and refraction-matched healthy controls. Methods High-resolution SD OCT (Copernicus [Optopol Technology S.A., Zawiercie, Poland], 3 μm resolution) and handheld SD OCT (Bioptigen Inc [Research Triangle Park, NC], 2.6 μm resolution) devices were used to acquire horizontal scans through the center of the optic disc and macula. Main Outcome Measures Horizontal optic disc/cup and rim diameters, cup depth, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and thickness of individual retinal layers in participants with ONH and in controls. Results Patients with ONH had significantly smaller discs (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001 compared with unaffected eye and healthy controls, respectively), horizontal cup diameter (P < 0.02 for both), and cup depth (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). In the macula, significantly thinner RNFL (nasally), ganglion cell layer (GCL) (nasally and temporally), inner plexiform layer (IPL) (nasally), outer nuclear layer (ONL) (nasally), and inner segment (centrally and temporally) were found in patients with ONH compared with the control group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Continuation of significantly thicker GCL, IPL, and outer plexiform layer in the central retinal area (i.e., foveal hypoplasia) was found in more than 80% of patients with ONH. Clinically unaffected fellow eyes of patients with ONH showed mild features of underdevelopment. Visual acuity and presence of septo-optic dysplasia were associated with changes in GCL and IPL. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of ONH based on disc and retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters were >80%. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of retinal changes in ONH. In addition to thinning of retina layers mainly involving the RNFL and GCL, signs reminiscent of foveal hypoplasia were observed in patients with ONH. Optic nerve and foveal parameters measured using OCT showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting ONH, demonstrating their useful for clinical diagnosis.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.03.020
ISSN: 0161-6420
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Description: Supplemental material is available at
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour

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