Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Negative relating styles of learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled offenders
Authors: Craven, Rachel
Tonkin, Matthew J.
First Published: 2017
Publisher: Emerald
Citation: Journal of Forensic Practice, 2017, 19(3), pp. 198-206
Abstract: Understanding the relating style of offenders is a relatively new concept in forensic psychology with research focusing on the association between relating and different categories of offenders (Newberry & Birtchnell, 2011). ‘Relating theory’ is based on the premise that we are born with a predisposition to relate to others in eight primary ways, and with maturity we can achieve a competent relating style. These eight positions incorporate the four key relating objectives of ‘upperness’, ‘lowerness’, ‘closeness’ and ‘distance’ that form the basis of the interpersonal octagon. The interpersonal octagon is organised around two intersecting axes: ‘close’ versus ‘distant’ on the horizontal axis, and ‘upper’ versus ‘lower’ on the vertical axis. A blend of the horizontal and vertical states create four intermediate positions completing the octagon. ‘Close’ is an interactional process of seeking closeness with the desire to gain greater involvement with others, whilst individuals with a ‘distant’ relating style have a need for separation and self-efficacy (Birtchnell, 1994). ‘Upper’ is a multifaceted relating objective that allows an individual to gain a sense of superiority in relation to others, versus ‘lower’ where the individual has a dependent relating style (Birtchnell, 1994). A relating style that lacks versatility and competence is known as negative relating.
DOI Link: 10.1108/JFP-07-2016-0030
ISSN: 2050-8794
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2017, Emerald. Deposited with reference to the publisher’s open access archiving policy.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Criminology

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Craven & Tonkin (2017).pdfPost-review (final submitted author manuscript)118.03 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in LRA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.