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Title: The association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes in a large cross-sectional study in Leicester: The CHAMPIONS Study
Authors: O'Donovan, Gary
Chudasama, Yogini
Grocock, Samuel
Leigh, Roland
Dalton, Alice M.
Gray, Laura J.
Yates, Thomas
Edwardson, Charlotte
Hill, Sian
Henson, Joe
Webb, David
Khunti, Kamlesh
Davies, Melanie J.
Jones, Andrew P.
Bodicoat, Danielle H.
Wells, Alan
First Published: 13-Apr-2017
Publisher: Elsevier for Pergamon
Citation: Environment International, 2017, 104, pp. 41-47
Abstract: Background: Observational evidence suggests there is an association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes; however, there is high risk of bias. Objective: To investigate the association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes, while reducing bias due to exposure assessment, outcome assessment, and confounder assessment. Methods: Data were collected from 10,443 participants in three diabetes screening studies in Leicestershire, UK. Exposure assessment included standard, prevailing estimates of outdoor nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations in a 1 × 1 km area at the participant's home postcode. Three-year exposure was investigated in the primary analysis and one-year exposure in a sensitivity analysis. Outcome assessment included the oral glucose tolerance test for type 2 diabetes. Confounder assessment included demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, area social deprivation, urban or rural location), lifestyle factors (body mass index and physical activity), and neighbourhood green space. Results: Nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations were associated with type 2 diabetes in unadjusted models. There was no statistically significant association between nitrogen dioxide concentration and type 2 diabetes after adjustment for demographic factors (odds: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.29). The odds of type 2 diabetes was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.32) after further adjustment for lifestyle factors and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.16) after yet further adjustment for neighbourhood green space. The associations between particulate matter concentrations and type 2 diabetes were also explained away by demographic factors. There was no evidence of exposure definition bias. Conclusions: Demographic factors seemed to explain the association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes in this cross-sectional study. High-quality longitudinal studies are needed to improve our understanding of the association.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.03.027
ISSN: 0160-4120
eISSN: 1873-6750
Embargo on file until: 13-Apr-2019
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © Elsevier, 2017. After an embargo period this version of the paper will be an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License (, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Description: The file associated with this record is under embargo until 24 months after publication, in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The full text may be available through the publisher links provided above.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Health Sciences

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