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Title: Regular exercise during haemodialysis promotes an anti-inflammatory leukocyte profile
Authors: Dungey, Maurice
Young, Hannah M. L.
Churchward, Darren R.
Burton, James O.
Smith, Alice C.
Bishop, Nicolette C.
First Published: 25-Mar-2017
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP) for European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA)
Citation: Clinical Kidney Journal, 2017, sfx015
Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients and is highly predicted by markers of chronic inflammation. Regular exercise may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, but this is unclear in HD patients. This study assessed the effect of regular intradialytic exercise on soluble inflammatory factors and inflammatory leucocyte phenotypes. Methods: Twenty-two HD patients from a centre where intradialytic cycling was offered thrice weekly and 16 HD patients receiving usual care volunteered. Exercising patients aimed to cycle for 30 min at rating of perceived exertion of ‘somewhat hard’. Baseline characteristics were compared with 16 healthy age-matched individuals. Physical function, soluble inflammatory markers and leucocyte phenotypes were assessed again after 6 months of regular exercise. Results: Patients were less active than their healthy counterparts and had significant elevations in measures of inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intermediate and non-classical monocytes; all P < 0.001]. Six months of regular intradialytic exercise improved physical function (sit-to-stand 60). After 6 months, the proportion of intermediate monocytes in the exercising patients reduced compared with non-exercisers (7.58 ± 1.68% to 6.38 ± 1.81% versus 6.86 ± 1.45% to 7.88 ± 1.66%; P < 0.01). Numbers (but not proportion) of regulatory T cells decreased in the non-exercising patients only (P < 0.05). Training had no significant effect on circulating IL-6, CRP or TNF-α concentrations. Conclusions: These findings suggest that regular intradialytic exercise is associated with an anti-inflammatory effect at a circulating cellular level but not in circulating cytokines. This may be protective against the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality that is associated with chronic inflammation and elevated numbers of intermediate monocytes.
DOI Link: 10.1093/ckj/sfx015
ISSN: 2048-8505
eISSN: 2048-8513
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2017. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

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