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Title: Association of walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality: A UK Biobank observational study
Authors: Yates, Thomas E.
Zaccardi, Francesco
Dhalwani, Nafeesa N.
Davies, Melanie J.
Bakrania, Kishan
Celis-Morales, Carlos A.
Gill, Jason M. R.
Franks, Paul W.
Khunti, Kamlesh
First Published: 21-Aug-2017
Publisher: Oxford University Press for European Society of Cardiology
Citation: European Heart Journal, 2017, 38 (43), pp. 3232–3240
Abstract: AIMS To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 230 670 women and 190 057 men free from prevalent cancer and cardiovascular disease were included from UK Biobank. Usual walking pace was self-defined as slow, steady/average or brisk. Handgrip strength was assessed by dynamometer. Cox-proportional hazard models were adjusted for social deprivation, ethnicity, employment, medications, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and television viewing time. Interaction terms investigated whether age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status modified associations. Over 6.3 years, there were 8598 deaths, 1654 from cardiovascular disease and 4850 from cancer. Associations of walking pace with mortality were modified by BMI. In women, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in slow compared with fast walkers were 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68–2.77] and 1.31 (1.08–1.60) in the bottom and top BMI tertiles, respectively; corresponding HRs for men were 2.01 (1.68–2.41) and 1.41 (1.20–1.66). Hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality remained above 1.7 across all categories of BMI in men and women, with modest heterogeneity in men. Handgrip strength was associated with cardiovascular mortality in men only (HR tertile 1 vs. tertile 3 = 1.38; 1.18–1.62), without differences across BMI categories, while associations with all-cause mortality were only seen in men with low BMI. Associations for walking pace and handgrip strength with cancer mortality were less consistent. CONCLUSION A simple self-reported measure of slow walking pace could aid risk stratification for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality within the general population.
DOI Link: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx449
ISSN: 0195-668X
eISSN: 1522-9645
Embargo on file until: 21-Aug-2018
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2017. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium non-commercially, provided the original author and source are credited.
Description: The file associated with this record is under embargo until 12 months after publication, in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The full text may be available through the publisher links provided above.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology

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