Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Full metadata record
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorCheshire, Emma C.-
dc.contributor.authorMalcomson, Roger D. G.-
dc.contributor.authorSun, Peng-
dc.contributor.authorMirkes, Evgeny M.-
dc.contributor.authorAmoroso, Jasmin M.-
dc.contributor.authorRutty, Guy N.-
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal of Legal Medicine, 2017en
dc.description.abstractIn the first years of life, subdural haemorrhage (SDH) within the cranial cavity can occur through accidental and non-accidental mechanisms as well as from birth-related injury. This type of bleeding is the most common finding in victims of abusive head trauma (AHT). Historically, the most frequent cause of SDHs in infancy is suggested to be traumatic damage to bridging veins traversing from the brain to the dural membrane. However, several alternative hypotheses have been suggested for the cause and origin of subdural bleeding. It has also been suggested by some that bridging veins are too large to rupture through the forces associated with AHT. To date, there have been no systematic anatomical studies on infant bridging veins. During 43 neonatal, infant and young child post-mortem examinations, we have mapped the locations and numbers of bridging veins onto a 3D model of the surface of a representative infant brain. We have also recorded the in situ diameter of 79 bridging veins from two neonatal, one infant and two young children at post-mortem examination. Large numbers of veins, both distant from and directly entering the dural venous sinuses, were discovered travelling between the brain and dural membrane, with the mean number of veins per brain being 54.1 and the largest number recorded as 94. The mean diameter of the bridging veins was 0.93 mm, with measurements ranging from 0.05 to 3.07 mm. These data demonstrate that some veins are extremely small and subjectively, and they appear to be delicate. Characterisation of infant bridging veins will contribute to the current understanding of potential vascular sources of subdural bleeding and could also be used to further develop computational models of infant head injury.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis article presents independent research funded by the Home Office Forensic Pathology Unit. We thank Leicester Hospital’s Little Lives, Big Journeys, for their donation towards the research project.en
dc.publisherSpringer Verlag (Germany) for International Academy of Legal Medicineen
dc.rightsCopyright © the authors, 2017. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectBridging veinen
dc.subjectHead injuryen
dc.subjectSubdural haemorrhageen
dc.titleA systematic autopsy survey of human infant bridging veins.en
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher Versionen
dc.type.subtypeJournal Article-
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCESen
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/School of Medicineen
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/School of Medicine/Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicineen
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/Themesen
pubs.organisational-group/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/Themes/Genome Scienceen
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
10.1007%2Fs00414-017-1714-3.pdfPublished (publisher PDF)14.33 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in LRA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.