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Title: Hate Crimes
Authors: Hardy, Stevie-Jade
Chakraborti, Neil
First Published: 10-Aug-2017
Publisher: Routledge
Citation: Hardy, S;Chakraborti, N, Hate Crimes, In Alternative Criminologies Edited by Pat Carlen, Leandro Ayres França, 2017
Abstract: [First paragraph] Hate crime’ is a politically and socially significant term that cuts across disciplines, across communities and across borders. With problems of bigotry continuing to pose challenges for societies across the world, a growth in hate crime scholarship and policy has promoted collective awareness of extreme and ‘everyday’ acts of hate alongside collective action amongst a range of different actors including law-makers, law-enforcers, nongovernmental organisations and activists. The need for such action is clear in the context of a now substantial body of empirical evidence that demonstrates the multiple layers of harm associated with hate crimes (Iganski, 2001; Perry, 2001; Walters, 2011). These harms cause both physical and emotional damage, and have been described by the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR; 2009) as harms which violate human rights between members of society; intensify the level of psychological hurt experienced by the individual victim; transmit an increased sense of fear and intimidation to the wider community to whom the victim ‘belongs’; and which create security and public order problems as a result of escalating social tensions.
ISBN: 9781138067424
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Chapter
Rights: Copyright © 2017, Routledge. Deposited with reference to the publisher’s open access archiving policy. (
Description: The file associated with this record is under embargo until 18 months after publication, in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The full text may be available through the publisher links provided above.
Appears in Collections:Books & Book Chapters, Dept. of Criminology

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