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Title: The General Practitioner Prompt Study to Reduce Cardiovascular and Renal Complications in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Renal Complications: Protocol and Baseline Characteristics for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
Authors: Willis, A
Crasto, W
Gray, L
Dallosso, H
Waheed, G
Gray, G
Davies, MJ
Khunti, K
First Published: 8-Jun-2018
Publisher: JMIR Publications
Citation: JMIR Research Protocols, 2018, 7 (6), pp. e152-?
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adherence to evidence-based cardiovascular risk factor targets in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria has shown long-term reduction in mortality and morbidity. Strategies to achieve such adherence have been delivered at individual patient level and are not cost-effective. Health care professional-level intervention has the potential to promote better adherence at lower cost. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial technology-driven intervention comprising health care professional training, a software prompt installed on practice systems, clinician email support, and enhanced performance and feedback reporting. METHODS: A cluster randomized trial will be performed where the primary outcome is the proportion of eligible patients meeting tight cardiovascular risk factor targets, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP; BP<130/80 mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC; TC<3.5 mmol/L) at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include proportion of patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <58 mmol/mol (7.5%), change in medication prescribing, changes in microalbuminuria and renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), incidence of major adverse CV events and mortality, and coding accuracy. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be assessed. RESULTS: Among 2721 eligible patients, mean age was 62.9 (SD 10.0) years, and duration of diabetes was 10.46 (SD 7.22) years. Mean HbA1c was 59.3 (SD 17.4) mmol/mol; mean systolic and diastolic BP (mm Hg) were 134.3 (SD 14.6) and 76.1 (SD 9.5) mm Hg, respectively; and mean TC was 4.1 (SD 0.98) mmol/L. Overall, 131 out of 2721 (4.81%) patients achieved all 3 "tight" cardiovascular risk factor targets. Cardiovascular risk factor burden increased two-fold in those with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with those with eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 22.76%. In total, 1076 out of 2721 (39.54%) patients were coded for microalbuminuria or proteinuria on their primary care medical record. CONCLUSIONS: The general practitioner prompt study is the largest UK primary care-based, technology-driven, randomized controlled trial to support intensive intervention in high-risk group of multiethnic individuals with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. This paper provides contemporary estimates for prevalent cardiovascular disease and adherence to evidence-based cardiovascular risk factor targets at baseline in a population with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The main trial results, including cost-effectiveness data, will be submitted for publication in 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN14918517; (Archived by WebCite at REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/9588.
DOI Link: 10.2196/resprot.9588
ISSN: 1929-0748
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2018. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Health Sciences

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