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Title: Non-consensual sharing of private sexually explicit media amongst university students
Authors: Hatcher, R
Walker, K
Sleath, E
Hine, B
Crookes, R
First Published: 2019
Publisher: SAGE Publications (UK and US)
Citation: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2019, In Press
Abstract: This research was the first in the U.K. to examine the prevalence and nature of non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit messages, pictures, and videos and to examine if this varies according to gender and by role (i.e. perpetrator, victim or as dual role of perpetrator/victim). In a sample of 391 young adults (aged 18-25 years) questionnaire data on subjective norms, consensual and non-consensual sharing, and their motivations for these behaviors were collected. Perpetration of and victimization through non-consensual sharing was experienced by a substantial number of individuals. There was an association between reporting perpetration of non-consensual sharing and experiencing victimization. An association was also found between reporting being pressured (i.e., coerced) to send sexually explicit material and experiencing victimization of non-consensual sharing, which suggests that these behaviours may form part of a continuum of violence and abuse, potentially within intimate relationships. No association was found between gender and (i) perpetration or (ii) victimization. However, from a gendered perspective, females perceived there was greater social pressure to post messages, pictures and videos, compared with males. Motivations for non-consensual sharing were commonly explained as for fun/a joke, and generally not thought of as problematic, although some victims perceived motivations to be more negative and/or related to revenge/causing distress. Given that this research examined non-consensual sharing across messages, pictures and videos for both victimization and perpetration and found it was both perpetrated and experienced by females and males, this does not support the common perception that this is a male perpetrated behaviour against women. This has implications for education, policy, intervention and prevention, with approaches needing to be inclusive of both males and females when addressing perpetration and victimization.
ISSN: 0886-2605
Links: TBA
Embargo on file until: 1-Jan-10000
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © 2019, SAGE Publications (UK and US). Deposited with reference to the publisher’s open access archiving policy. (
Description: The file associated with this record is under embargo until publication, in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The full text may be available through the publisher links provided above.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour

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