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Title: The broiler chicken as a signal of a human reconfigured biosphere
Authors: Bennett, C
Thomas, R
Williams, M
Zalasiewicz, J
Edgeworth, M
Miller, H
Coles, B
Foster, A
Burton, E
Marume, U
First Published: 12-Dec-2018
Publisher: Royal Society, The, with Royal Society of Chemistry
Citation: Royal Society Open Science, 2018, 5:180325
Abstract: Changing patterns of human resource use and food consumption have profoundly impacted the Earth's biosphere. Until now, no individual taxa have been suggested as distinct and characteristic new morphospecies representing this change. Here we show that the domestic broiler chicken is one such potential marker. Human-directed changes in breeding, diet and farming practices demonstrate at least a doubling in body size from the late medieval period to the present in domesticated chickens, and an up to fivefold increase in body mass since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, the skeletal morphology, pathology, bone geochemistry and genetics of modern broilers are demonstrably different to those of their ancestors. Physical and numerical changes to chickens in the second half of the twentieth century, i.e. during the putative Anthropocene Epoch, have been the most dramatic, with large increases in individual bird growth rate and population sizes. Broiler chickens, now unable to survive without human intervention, have a combined mass exceeding that of all other birds on Earth; this novel morphotype symbolizes the unprecedented human reconfiguration of the Earth's biosphere.
DOI Link: 10.1098/rsos.180325
ISSN: 2054-5703
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2018. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Description: Electronic supplementary material is available online at
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, School of Archaeology and Ancient History

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