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Title: Modulating the Chemical and Biological Properties of Cancer Stem Cell-Potent Copper(II)-Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Complexes.
Authors: Shin, Jimin
Eskandari, Arvin
Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan
First Published: 29-Apr-2019
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Molecules, 2019, 24 (9), 1677
Abstract: Copper(II) complexes bearing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to potently kill cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of tumour cells with high metastatic and relapse fidelity. One of the major disadvantages associated to these copper(II) complexes is their instability in the presence of strong cellular reductants (such as ascorbic acid). Here we present a biologically stable copper(II)-NSAID complex containing a bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium ligand and two indomethacin moieties, Cu(bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium)(indomethacin)2, 2. The copper(II) complex, 2 kills bulk breast cancer cells and breast CSC equally (in the sub-micromolar range) and displays very low toxicity against non-tumorigenic breast and kidney cells (IC50 value > 100 µM). Three-dimensional cell culture studies show that 2 can significantly reduce the number and size of breast CSC mammospheres formed (from single suspensions) to a similar level as salinomycin (an established anti-breast CSC agent). The copper(II) complex, 2 is taken up reasonably by breast CSCs and localises largely in the cytoplasm (>90%). Cytotoxicity studies in the presence of specific inhibitors suggest that 2 induces CSC death via a reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase isoenzyme-2 (COX-2) dependent apoptosis pathway.
DOI Link: 10.3390/molecules24091677
eISSN: 1420-3049
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Description: The following are available online, Experimental Details (including Figures S1–S11).
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Chemistry

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