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Title: Characterization of Flagellotropic, Chi-Like Salmonella Phages Isolated from Thai Poultry Farms
Authors: Phothaworn, Preeda
Dunne, Matthew
Supokaivanich, Rattaya
Ong, Catherine
Lim, Jiali
Taharnklaew, Rutjawate
Vesaratchavest, Mongkol
Khumthong, Rabuesak
Pringsulaka, Onanong
Ajawatanawong, Pravech
Klumpp, Jochen
Brown, Nathan
Imam, Mohammed
Clokie, Martha R. J.
Galyov, Edouard E.
Korbsrisat, Sunee
First Published: 5-Jun-2019
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Viruses, 2019, 11(6), 520
Abstract: Despite a wealth of knowledge on Salmonella phages worldwide, little is known about poultry-associated Salmonella phages from Thailand. Here, we isolated 108 phages from Thai poultry farms that infect Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Phages STm101 and STm118 were identified as temperate Siphoviridae phages. Genome sequencing and analyses revealed these phages share approximately 96% nucleotide sequence similarity to phage SPN19, a member of the Chi-like virus genus. PCR amplification of the gene encoding capsid protein E of the Chi-like phage was positive for 50% of phage isolates, suggesting a predominance of this phage type among the sampled poultry farms. In addition to the flagella, two phages required the lipopolysaccharide to infect and lyse Salmonella. Furthermore, phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that phages STm101 and STm118 formed a monophyletic clade with phages isolated from Western countries, but not from closer isolated phages from Korea. However, further investigation and more phage isolates are required to investigate possible causes for this geographic distribution.
DOI Link: 10.3390/v11060520
ISSN: 1999-4915
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Description: The following are available online at, Figure S1: A hierarchically clustering all Salmonella phage genomes according to their average amino acid identity, Figure S2: 50% of all Salmonella phage isolates from Thai poultry farms are putative members of the Chi-like virus genus, Table S1: Complete list of Salmonella strains used for phage host range analysis title, Table S2: List of all identified Salmonella phages with the country of phage isolation, Table S3: Infectivity of other Chi-like phages against 4 serovars of Salmonella enterica, Table S4: List of Salmonella phage STm101 annotated ORFs and gene products, Table S5: List of Salmonella phage STm118 annotated ORFs and gene products, Supplementary file 1 (CSV file):Video Identified Salmonella phages with accession numbersS1: title, Supplementary File 2 (TSV file): Average amino acid identities of Salmonella phages, Supplementary file 3 (TSV file): A shared core set of 28 orthologs from the sequences of 14 Chi-like phages, Supplementary file 4 (FNA file): The concatenated codonaligned nucleotide sequences of the 28 orthologs.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

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