Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2381/44529
Title: Prehospital transdermal glyceryl trinitrate in patients with ultra-acute presumed stroke (RIGHT-2): an ambulance-based, randomised, sham-controlled, blinded, phase 3 trial.
Authors: RIGHT-2 Investigators
First Published: 6-Feb-2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Lancet, 2019, 393 (10175), pp. 1009-1020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is common in acute stroke and is a predictor of poor outcome; however, large trials of lowering blood pressure have given variable results, and the management of high blood pressure in ultra-acute stroke remains unclear. We investigated whether transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; also known as nitroglycerin), a nitric oxide donor, might improve outcome when administered very early after stroke onset. METHODS: We did a multicentre, paramedic-delivered, ambulance-based, prospective, randomised, sham-controlled, blinded-endpoint, phase 3 trial in adults with presumed stroke within 4 h of onset, face-arm-speech-time score of 2 or 3, and systolic blood pressure 120 mm Hg or higher. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive transdermal GTN (5 mg once daily for 4 days; the GTN group) or a similar sham dressing (the sham group) in UK-based ambulances by paramedics, with treatment continued in hospital. Paramedics were unmasked to treatment, whereas participants were masked. The primary outcome was the 7-level modified Rankin Scale (mRS; a measure of functional outcome) at 90 days, assessed by central telephone follow-up with masking to treatment. Analysis was hierarchical, first in participants with a confirmed stroke or transient ischaemic attack (cohort 1), and then in all participants who were randomly assigned (intention to treat, cohort 2) according to the statistical analysis plan. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN26986053. FINDINGS: Between Oct 22, 2015, and May 23, 2018, 516 paramedics from eight UK ambulance services recruited 1149 participants (n=568 in the GTN group, n=581 in the sham group). The median time to randomisation was 71 min (IQR 45-116). 597 (52%) patients had ischaemic stroke, 145 (13%) had intracerebral haemorrhage, 109 (9%) had transient ischaemic attack, and 297 (26%) had a non-stroke mimic at the final diagnosis of the index event. In the GTN group, participants' systolic blood pressure was lowered by 5·8 mm Hg compared with the sham group (p<0·0001), and diastolic blood pressure was lowered by 2·6 mm Hg (p=0·0026) at hospital admission. We found no difference in mRS between the groups in participants with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischaemic stroke (cohort 1): 3 (IQR 2-5; n=420) in the GTN group versus 3 (2-5; n=408) in the sham group, adjusted common odds ratio for poor outcome 1·25 (95% CI 0·97-1·60; p=0·083); we also found no difference in mRS between all patients (cohort 2: 3 [2-5]; n=544, in the GTN group vs 3 [2-5]; n=558, in the sham group; 1·04 [0·84-1·29]; p=0·69). We found no difference in secondary outcomes, death (treatment-related deaths: 36 in the GTN group vs 23 in the sham group [p=0·091]), or serious adverse events (188 in the GTN group vs 170 in the sham group [p=0·16]) between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Prehospital treatment with transdermal GTN does not seem to improve functional outcome in patients with presumed stroke. It is feasible for UK paramedics to obtain consent and treat patients with stroke in the ultra-acute prehospital setting. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation.
DOI Link: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30194-1
eISSN: 1474-547X
Links: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673619301941?via%3Dihub
http://hdl.handle.net/2381/44529
Version: Publisher Version
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Description: Individual participant data will be shared with the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) collaboration. From Jan 1, 2021, the Chief Investigator (with approval from the Trial Steering Committee as necessary) will consider other requests to share individual participant data via email at: right-2@nottingham.ac.uk. We will require a protocol detailing hypothesis, aims, analyses, and intended tables and figures. Where possible, we will perform the analyses; alternatively, de-identified data and a data dictionary will be supplied for the necessary variables for remote analysis. Any sharing will be subject to a signed data access agreement. Ultimately, the data will be published.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
1-s2.0-S0140673619301941-main.pdfPublished (publisher PDF)499.39 kBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in LRA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.