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Title: Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of independent pharmacist prescribing in care home: the CHIPPS study.
Authors: Holland, R
Bond, CM
Alldred, D
Arthur, A
Barton, G
Desborough, J
Ford, J
Handford, C
Hill, H
Hughes, C
Maskrey, V
Norris, N
Myint, P
Poland, F
Shepstone, L
Turner, D
Zermansky, A
Wright, D
First Published: 2019
Publisher: BMC (part of Springer Nature)
Citation: Trials, 2019, In Press
Abstract: Background Prescribing, monitoring and administration of medicines in care homes could be improved. Research has identified the need for one person to assume overall responsibility for the management of medicines within each care home. and shown that a pharmacist independent prescriber service is feasible in this context. Aims and Objectives To conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacist independent prescribing service in care homes compared to usual general practitioner (GP)- led care Objectives Perform a definitive RCT with an internal pilot to determine the intervention’s effectiveness and cost effectiveness and enable modelling beyond the end of the trial. Methods This protocol is for a cluster RCT with a 3-month internal pilot to confirm recruitment is achievable, and there are no safety concerns. The unit of randomisation is a triad comprising an independent pharmacist prescriber (PIP) based in a GP practice with sufficient registered patients resident in one or more care homes to allow recruitment of an average of 20 participants. In the intervention group, the PIP will, in collaboration with GP: assume responsibility for prescribing and managing residents’ medicines including medication review and pharmaceutical care planning; support systematic ordering and administration in the care home, GP practice and supplying pharmacy; train care home and GP practice staff; communicate with GP practice, care home, supplying community pharmacy and study team. The intervention will last 6 months. The primary outcome will be resident falls at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include resident health related quality of life, falls at 3 months, medication burden, medication appropriateness, mortality and hospitalisations. A full health economic analysis will be undertaken. Target sample size is 880 residents (440) in each arm) from 44 triads. This number is sufficient to detect a decrease in fall rate from 1.5 per individual to 1.178 (relative reduction of 21%) with 80% power and an ICC of 0.05 or less. Discussion Recruitment is ongoing and the trial should complete in early 2020. The trial results will have implications for the future management of residents in care homes and the ongoing implementation of independent pharmacist prescribing.
ISSN: 1745-6215
Links: TBA
Embargo on file until: 1-Jan-10000
Version: Post-print
Status: Peer-reviewed
Type: Journal Article
Rights: Copyright © the authors, 2019. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Description: The file associated with this record is under embargo until publication, in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The full text may be available through the publisher links provided above.
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology

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