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|Title:||Time-temperature superposition for viscoelastic properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) films|
|Authors:||Hillman, A. R.|
|Citation:||Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2005, 127 (11), pp.3817-3824|
|Abstract:||Shear moduli were determined for chemically polymerized and solvent cast regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) films, using thickness shear mode acoustic wave resonators. The results are strikingly different to those for electropolymerized regiorandom poly(3-hexylthiophene) films. The time scale of the measurement was varied directly by use of higher harmonics of the acoustic wave resonator and indirectly via temperature. The significant variations in shear modulus with effective time scale can be “normalized” onto a stress master relaxation curve by using the concept of time−temperature superposition; this is the first time this has been demonstrated for electroactive films. The shift factors required to effect this normalization do not follow the classical Williams−Landel−Ferry (WLF) equation developed for long-range backbone motions of bulk polymers. Instead, they follow an Arrhenius-like behavior, commonly used to describe secondary motions of polymer side-chains. The activation enthalpy associated with this is independent of applied potential, is the same as for as cast (undoped) films, and is similar to that for rotation about a carbon−carbon single bond. These all point to the hexyl side-chains as the origins of the observed phenomena, consistent with the “melting point” separating two temperature-dependent phases and with the different molecular packing arrangements that would necessarily apply to regioregular and regiorandom materials.|
|Appears in Collections:||Published Articles, Dept. of Chemistry|
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