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Title: Verbal expressions of confidence and doubt
Authors: Wesson, Caroline J.
Pulford, Briony D.
First Published: Aug-2009
Publisher: Ammons Scientific
Citation: Psychological Reports, 2009, 105 (1), pp. 151-160.
Abstract: The development of a taxonomy of expressions expressing the degree of confidence or certainty felt in the correctness of one's judgments, knowledge, or beliefs is reported. 30 phrases expressing confidence and doubt were rated by 96 British participants on a 7-point scale to indicate how much confidence or doubt they felt each phrase expressed. The expressions were rank ordered, based on their mean ratings, to produce a continuum of cues expressing confidence, ranging from high to low. 9 of the 30 expressions were rated as expressing lower confidence when phrased in the past tense than in the present tense. The expressions reported in this study form a useful tool for researchers who are investigating the communication of confidence and degrees of belief, especially in relation to giving advice, influence, and persuasion.
DOI Link: 10.2466/pr0.105.1.151-160
ISSN: 0033-2941
Type: Article
Rights: The official published version of this article can be found at This is an authors’ draft of the paper published as Psychological Reports, 2009, 105 (1), pp. 151-160. DOI: 10.2466/pr0.105.1.151-160
Appears in Collections:Published Articles, School of Psychology

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